Cardinal Herbert Vaughan papers


IDENTITY STATEMENT
Reference code(s): GB 2254 HCV
Held at: Mill Hill Missionaries' Archives
Domain: archival
Title: Cardinal Herbert Vaughan papers
Date(s) of contents: 1832-c1966
Level of description: Sub-fonds
Extent and medium: c31 boxes of papers, 12 boxes of newspaper cuttings, 6 boxes of books, some artefacts.

CONTEXT

Name of creator(s):
Hanmer, Caroline (1868-1903)
Vaughan family
Vaughan, Herbert Alfred (1832-1903)

Administrative/Biographical history: Herbert Alfred Vaughan was born in Gloucester on the 15th April 1832, the eldest son of Colonel John Vaughan and Eliza Vaughan, née Rolls. The Vaughans were a large landed family of English Roman Catholic recusant stock, whose estate was situated at Courtfield, near the English-Welsh border. Vaughan was educated at the Jesuit colleges of Stoneyhurst (1841-1846), and Brugelette, Belgium (1846-1848), and thence at the Benedictine Downside Abbey (1849-1951). Rather than following the his father's path as a country gentlemen, he decided to enter the priesthood, setting an example for his siblings (five of his seven brothers also became priests, and all of his five sisters became nuns). In 1852, therefore, Vaughan commenced theological studies in Rome, leading to his ordination on 28th October 1854, at Lucca in Italy, at the age of only 22. His first post after ordination was that of Vice-Rector at the seminary of St Edmund's, Ware, in Hertfordshire, the main seminary of the South of England.

Soon after, however, he determined to devote himself to missionary work. Not strong enough himself for the vigours of overseas work, he aimed to achieve this via the establishment of a missionary training college; he was encouraged in his plans by his friend Father (later Cardinal) Henry Edward Manning (1808-1892) and by Cardinal Nicholas Patrick Stephen Wiseman (1802-1865).

To this end, Vaughan embarked on a fundraising tour in the Caribbean and South America, with the result that a year after his return to England in 1865, he was able to rent a house in Mill Hill in north London. Under conditions of some poverty, the house operated as the new missionary training school, that of St Joseph's Society of the Sacred Heart for Foreign Missions. Following further fundraising initiated by Archbishop Manning in 1868, the building of a new college on a freehold site nearby was completed in 1871; at the time it served a community of 34 students.

Later that year, the first missionary endeavour of St Joseph's was realised. Rome assigned the evangelization of the recently freed black population of the southern states of the USA. To this end, Vaughan himself travelled to America with his first four missionary priests. This led to the successful establishment of a mission in Baltimore, Maryland, out of which developed, by 1892, a separate society, that of the Josephite Fathers.

Upon his return to England, following the death of the Bishop of Salford, William Turner, Vaughan was appointed as Turner's successor. Although this meant that he had to relinquish his role as the local superior of St Joseph's College, he remained until his death the head of the Missionary Society. His new role in Salford brought him into contact with a group of women organized by a Lancashire woman, Alice Ingham, attached to the Franciscan monastery at Gorton. Turner had imposed a period of probation on Ingham's group which had not expired upon his death; in 1878 Vaughan therefore invited the community, by way of an alternative probation, to take over the management of St Joseph's college. Ingham's women therefore moved to London and in 1883 took vows as Sisters of St Joseph's Society of the Sacred Heart of the Third Order Regular of St Francis. As associates of Mill Hill, as St Joseph's came to be known, the Sisters not only not only provided local support for the priesthood, but established their own mission territories, for example, in Brunei and later in Kenya, thus helping to further realise Vaughan's missionary vision.

Vaughan's other endeavours included the establishment of the Rescue and Protection Society, a philanthropic organization working with Catholic children in the north of England, the purchase and editorship of the Catholic paper The Tablet, and, following his ordination as Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster in 1892, the foundation of Westminster Cathedral. However, despite these other occupations, he was still able to witness the expansion of missionary activity from Mill Hill (this included the establishment of additional training colleges in the Netherlands and the Tyrol, and, during Vaughan's own lifetime, missions including those to South India, West Pakistan, Brunei, New Zealand and Uganda). Vaughan returned to Mill Hill at the end of his life, where he died and was buried in 1903.

See also:
John George Snead Cox, The life of Cardinal Vaughan (London: Herbert & Daniel, 1910).
Letters of Herbert Cardinal Vaughan to Lady Herbert of Lea, 1867-1903 ed. by Shane Leslie (London: Burns & Oates, 1942).
Francis M. Dreves, Remembered in blessing: the Courtfield story (Glasgow: Sands & Co, 1955).
Christopher Cook, A century of charity: the story of the Mill Hill Missionaries (London: Incorporated Catholic Truth Society, 1965).
Arthur MacCormack, Cardinal Vaughan: the life of the third Archbishop of Westminster (London: Burns & Oates, 1966).
Reverend William Mol, 'The archives of the Mill Hill Missionaries', Catholic Archives, II (1982), 20-27.
Robert O'Neil, Cardinal Herbert Vaughan (Burns & Oates, 1995)
Mary Vaughan, Courtfield and the Vaughans: an English Catholic inheritance (London: Quiller Press, 1989).
Robert J. O'Neil, Cardinal Herbert Vaughan: Archbishop of Westminster, Bishop of Salford, founder of the Mill Hill Missionaries (Tunbridge Wells: Burns & Oates, 1995).
Sister Germaine Henry, 'The archives of the Franciscan Missionary Sisters of St Joseph', Catholic Archives, XVI (1996), 12-20.
Reverend William Mol, 'The archives of the Mill Hill Missionaries since 1982', Catholic Archives, XVI (1996), 12-20.

Custodial history:

Immediate source of acquisition: The collection has been in the continuous possession of St Joseph's College, with the exception of newspaper cuttings collected and donated by Caroline Hanmer, a local resident of Mill Hill and documenter of Vaughan and his work.

CONTENT AND STRUCTURE

Scope and content/abstract: The collection comprises material and memorabilia of Cardinal Herbert Vaughan, including:
Papers from 1832 to 1903, including pastoral letters and correspondence relating to his acquisition of The Tablet and his notebooks and sermon notes.
Material relating to Vaughan and his family including books by, relating to and about Vaughan, books by and about the Vaughan family, biographical material, books of cuttings from local and national newspapers, collected by Vaughan's Mill Hill neighbour Caroline Hanmer and relating to Vaughan and his work, and other newspaper cuttings.
Artefacts and personal effects such as Vaughan's bishop's hat.
Other material such as material relating to the 1966 centenary of the founding of St Joseph's Society of the Sacred Heart for Foreign Missions, and miscellaneous material such as publications on Westminster Cathedral, and information on 18th and 19th century English Catholics.

Publications include bound volumes of mission magazines left by Vaughan, such as: Annals of the Propagation of the Faith (1838-1902)and Illustrated Catholic Missions (a monthly publication that Vaughan helped to found in 1885; incomplete).

System of arrangement: The collection is a subfonds of the St Joseph's Society for Foreign Missions archive, and is subdivided into boxes as follows:
Box 1: Papers 1832-1852
Box 2: Papers 1852-1863
Box 3: Papers 1863-1865
Box 4: Accounts 1860-1865
Box 5: Papers 1864-1871, including the acquisition of The Tablet
Box 6: Papers 1871-1875
Box 7: Papers 1876-1880
Box 8: Papers 1881-1885
Box 9: Papers 1886-1890
Box 10: Papers 1891-1895
Box 11: Papers 1896-1900
Box 12: Papers 1901-1903
Boxes 13-18: Sermon notes
Box 19: Notebooks 1878-1897
Box 20: Pastoral letters 1872-1895
Box 21: Books written by Cardinal Vaughan
Box 22: Books relating to Cardinal Vaughan
Box 23: Books written by members of the Vaughan family
Box 24: Books written on members of the Vaughan family
Boxes 25-26: Studies on the life of Cardinal Vaughan
Box 27: Background information on the lives and times of Catholics in 18th and 19th century England
Box 28: Biographical articles
Boxes 29-30: Biographies
Boxes 31-40: Books containing cuttings from the local and national press (1868-1903), collected by Caroline Hanmer and relating to Cardinal Vaughan and his work
Box 41: Liturgical books left by Cardinal Vaughan
Boxes 42-43: Personal effects left by Cardinal Vaughan
Boxes 44-45 Miscellaneous material, including publications about Westminster Cathedral
Box 46: Material relating to the Vaughan family
Box 47: Transcribed letters
Box 48: Material relating to preparations for the centenary year (1966) of the founding of St Joseph's Missionary Society
Boxes 49-50: newspaper cuttings

The collection also includes bound volumes of mission magazines as detailed in the Scope and content section.

ACCESS AND USE

Language: English.

Conditions governing access: Some restrictions may apply. Refer to the Archivist in the first instance.

Conditions governing reproduction: No publication without written permission. Apply to the Archivist in the first instance.

Finding aids: Uncatalogued.

ALLIED MATERIALS

Related material: The Mill Hill Missionary Library of St Joseph's College holds material relating to Cardinal Vaughan and the Mill Hill Missionaries.

Mill Hill Missionaries Archives also includes the St Joseph's Society for Foreign Missions archive, of which the Cardinal Herbert Vaughan papers are a subfonds.

Publication note:
Reverend William Mol, 'The archives of the Mill Hill Missionaries', Catholic Archives, II (1982), 20-27.
Reverend William Mol, 'The archives of the Mill Hill Missionaries since 1982', Catholic Archives, XVI (1996), 12-20.

DESCRIPTION NOTES

Note: St Joseph's Society of the Sacred Heart for Foreign Mission changed its name in 1896 to St Joseph's Society for Foreign Mission. Popular names for St Joseph's missionaries are the Mill Hill Fathers and the Mill Hill Missionaries.

Compiled using:
Biographical dictionary of Christian missions, ed. by Gerald H. Anderson (New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan, 1998).
New Advent Catholic Encyclopaedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15311b.htm (16th April 2002).
Christopher Cook, A century of charity: the story of the Mill Hill Missionaries (London: Incorporated Catholic Truth Society, 1965).
Sister Germaine Henry, 'The archives of the Franciscan Missionary Sisters of St Joseph', Catholic Archives, XVI (1996), 12-20.
Reverend William Mol, 'The archives of the Mill Hill Missionaries', Catholic Archives, II (1982), 20-27.
Reverend William Mol, 'The archives of the Mill Hill Missionaries since 1982', Catholic Archives, XVI (1996), 12-20.

Date(s) of descriptions: 18th April 2002


INDEX ENTRIES
Subjects
Adult education institutions
Ancient religions
Biographies
Catholic missionary societies
Catholicism
Catholics
Christianity
Christians
Churches
Clergy
Literary forms and genres
Missionaries
Missionary societies
Missionary training
Missionary training institutions
Missionary work
Newspaper press
Ordained missionaries
Press
Press cuttings
Prose
Religious activities
Religious buildings
Religious communities
Religious institutions
Religious organizations
Religous groups
Roman catholic missionary societies
Training centres

Personal names
Hanmer | Caroline | 1868-1903
Vaughan | Herbert Alfred | 1832-1903 | Cardinal-Archbishop of Westminster 1892-1903 and founder of St Joseph's Society of the Sacred Heart for Foreign Missions
Vaughan | family | of Courtfield

Corporate names
Cathedral Church of Westminster
Mill Hill Missionaries
St Joseph's Society for Foreign Missions
St Joseph's Society of the Sacred Heart for Foreign Mission
Westminster Cathedral

Places
Europe
London
Mill Hill
UK
Western Europe
Westminster